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Training Curriculum on IDEA 2004:
Resources for Trainers forTheme B: IDEA and General Education
March 200730 pages when printed.
This Resources for Trainers file is part of a training package on the 2004 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, developed by NICHCY for the Office of Special Education Programs at the U.S. Department of Education.
The training curriculum is entitled Building the Legacy; these resources are intended to support training on the six modules addressing the umbrella topic of IDEA and General Education, Theme B. Trainers can either share these resources with participants or not, as they deem appropriate for the needs and interests of the audience. We include these supplemental resources for trainers own knowledge base and convenience.
At the moment, the Resources for Trainers in this file address only two of the six modules: Module 5 on Disproportionality and Overrepresentation, and Module 6, Early Intervening Services and Response to Intervention. As the other modules in Theme B are approved for dissemination, their Resources for Trainers will be added to this packet.
Modules in Theme B
The six modules in Theme B are:
NCLB and IDEA, available by June 2007, will provide an overview of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and how many of IDEA 2004s new provisions have purposefully been aligned to NCLB.
Statewide and Districtwide Assessments, available by June 2007, will take a closer look at IDEA 2004s provisions that require children with disabilities to participate in large scale assessment programs.
Disproportionality and Overrepresentation focuses on IDEAs provisions addressing the overidentification of specific racial and ethnic groups for special education.
Early Intervening Services and Response to Intervention examines two new sets of provisions in IDEA intended to allow districts to catch learning or behavior problems early and to permit methods of identification of children with specific learning disabilities that focus on students responses to appropriate instruction in regular education.
Highly Qualified Teachers provides an overview of another new area within IDEA that comes to us from NCLB and that sets new standards of quality for special educators.
NIMAS, also new to IDEA 2004, discusses a set of accessibility standards that will greatly improve access to the general education curriculum for children with print disabilities.
Resource for Trainers B1
Methods for Assessing
Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education:
A Technical Assistance Guide
INTRODUCTION
Racial/ethnic disproportionality in special education has been an important topic of concern for many years. In 1997, the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) set forth provisions requiring states to address significant disproportionality where it occurs. States are instructed to collect and examine data to assess whether any racial/ethnic groups are disproportionately represented in special education disability and educational environment categories.
Many different methods of calculating disproportionality exist. Each of these methods represents a different way of reporting the same data, and each answers a different question about racial/ethnic representation in special education.
This technical assistance guide focuses on two of the more common methods: composition and risk. We also discuss the risk ratio as a means for comparing risk. This technical assistance guide summarizes how to apply each of these methods to state and districtlevel data when assessing racial/ethnic disproportionality.
For each method, Westat summarizes the question it answers and provides at least two examples of its use. We also include a brief discussion of how to interpret the methods, along with the strengths and limitations of each. The technical assistance guide concludes with a short discussion of some issues states should consider when evaluating racial/ethnic disproportionality.
All of the examples that follow use data presented in Tables 1 and 2, which consist of IDEA data and total student enrollment data by race/ethnicity. It should be noted, however, that the data in these tables are fictitious and do not represent data from an actual state. Furthermore, to be consistent throughout our examples, we only present and use data for one disability category and one educational environment category. States, however, should examine the other disability and educational environment categories when assessing disproportionality at both the state and districtlevels.
Although our fictitious state has a limited number of districts to simplify the examples, these methods easily translate to states with larger numbers of districts or student enrollments. They can also be used with individual schoollevel data.
Table 1. Child Count and Total Student Enrollment Data for State A by Race/Ethnicity
STATE A MENTAL RETARDATION (MR)
DistrictAmerican Indian/Alaska NativeAsian/Pacific IslanderBlack (not Hispanic)HispanicWhite (not Hispanic)TOTALS
District 10340240303748District 21535312166911,069District 30018900189District 421138810108519District 511183161217321,198District 67261821796821,076District 7001996997365District 85274937756658District 97232811457061,162District 100183481235601,049TOTALS471613,1107803,9358,033
STATE A TOTAL STUDENT ENROLLMENT
DistrictAmerican Indian/Alaska NativeAsian/Pacific IslanderBlack (not Hispanic)HispanicWhite (not Hispanic)TOTALS
District 13421,4039,8987,56430,42149,628District 21911,6985,83211,56321,43840,722District 3251544,6975003865,762District 42651,75611,5865,68822,54141,836District 53111,2136,2246,00234,89748,647District 62252,2047,8453,25640,15853,688District 719887510,78610,48813,66936,016District 82461,6575,6457,23531,79646,579District 91431,8756,0028,01328,97745,010District 10451,0995,1389,36314,59230,237TOTALS1,99113,93473,65369,672238,875398,125
Table 2. Educational Environment and Total Child Count Data for State A by Race/Ethnicity
STATE A OUTSIDE GENERAL CLASSROOM >60% OF SCHOOL DAY
DistrictAmerican Indian/Alaska NativeAsian/Pacific IslanderBlack (not Hispanic)HispanicWhite (not Hispanic)TOTALS
District 12179989346553District 2230145145370692District 3004991541555District 432113931201395District 57910893205422District 6527133132323620District 768115124234487District 801810198257474District 9637103136387669District 100112291232TOTALS311681,4431,0922,3655,099
STATE A TOTAL CHILD COUNTALL DISABILITIES
DistrictAmerican Indian/Alaska NativeAsian/Pacific IslanderBlack (not Hispanic)HispanicWhite (not Hispanic)TOTALS
District 1101501,0316952,1604,046District 2421649915442,5184,259District 32151,698751311,921District 4151891,7656782,2634,910District 5321559026172,7464,452District 6241699984251,8953,511District 7261371,0406452,1213,969District 8171567527782,5204,223District 9221718725904,5286,183District 100237424751TOTALS1901,30810,0525,78920,88638,225
COMPOSITION
Composition answers the question, What percentage of students receiving special education and related services either for a particular disability or in a particular educational environment are from a specific racial/ethnic group?
Example #1
Question: In State A, what percentage of students receiving special education and related services for MR are Black?
Find the number of Black students in the MR category. Using Table 1, State A has 3,110 Black students in the MR category.
Find the total number of students with MR. Using Table 1, State A has a total of 8,033 students with MR.
Divide the number of Black students in the MR category by the total number of students in the MR category and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent:
Answer: In State A, 38.7% of students receiving special education and related services for MR are Black.
Example #2
Question: In State A, what percentage of students receiving special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day are Hispanic?
Find the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category. Using Table 2, State A has 1,092 Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category.
Find the total number of students in the >60% educational environment category. Using Table 2, State A has a total of 5,099 students in the >60% educational environment category.
Divide the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category by the total number of students in the >60% educational environment category and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent:
Answer: In State A, 21.4% of students receiving special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day are Hispanic.
Interpretation
To begin to address the question of whether the racial/ethnic composition of a disability or educational environment category is disproportionate, compare the racial/ethnic composition of the disability or educational environment category to the racial/ethnic composition of a comparison group. Typically, the racial/ethnic composition of either the disability category or educational environment category is compared to the racial/ethnic composition of the total student enrollment.
To compare a racial/ethnic groups percentage of the disability or educational environment category to that groups percentage of the enrollment, calculate the relative difference in composition. The relative difference in composition is the size of the difference between the racial/ethnic group's percentage of the disability or educational environment category and the group's percentage of the enrollment represented as a proportion of the group's percentage of the enrollment.
A positive relative difference in composition indicates the racial/ethnic group composes a larger percentage of the disability or educational environment category than it does the enrollment. A negative relative difference in composition indicates the racial/ethnic group composes a smaller percentage of the disability or educational environment category than it does the enrollment.
In Example #1, the percentage of the MR category that is Black can be compared to the percentage of the student enrollment that is Black.
1. Calculate the enrollment composition. Divide the number of enrolled Black students in State A by the total number of enrolled students in State A and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent. Using Table 1:
2. Calculate the relative difference in composition. Using the unrounded percentages, divide the difference between the disability composition and the enrollment composition by the enrollment composition and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent.
Thus, in State A, Black students compose 38.7% of the MR category, but only 18.5% of enrolled students. The percentage of the MR category that is Black is 109.3% larger than the percentage of the student enrollment that is Black.
In Example #2, the percentage of the >60% educational environment category that is Hispanic can be compared to the percentage of the student enrollment that is Hispanic.
1. Calculate the enrollment composition. Divide the number of enrolled Hispanic students in State A by the total number of enrolled students in State A and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent. Using Table 2:
2. Calculate the relative difference in composition. Using the unrounded percentages, divide the difference between the educational environment composition and the enrollment composition by the enrollment composition then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent:
Thus, in State A, Hispanic students compose 21.4% of the >60% educational environment category, but only 17.5% of enrolled students. The percentage of the >60% educational environment category that is Hispanic is 22.4% larger than the percentage of the student enrollment that is Hispanic.
Strengths and Limitations
Composition is useful when discussing the racial/ethnic makeup of a disability or educational environment category. Composition, however, varies directly with the racial/ethnic demographics of the state or district for which it is calculated. With composition, the size of the racial/ethnic groups percentage of the disability or educational environment category is directly related to the size of that racial/ethnic groups percentage of the total student enrollment.
For example, when one racial/ethnic group composes a large percentage of a states or districts total enrollment, then that racial/ethnic group will also compose a large percentage of the disability or educational environment category. In other words, if a states or districts enrollment consists mostly of White students, then White students will compose a much larger percentage of the disability or educational environment category than any other racial/ethnic group. Similarly, in states or districts with larger Black or Hispanic enrollments, Black or Hispanic students will compose a comparatively larger percentage of the disability or educational environment categories than states with smaller Black or Hispanic enrollments.
To be interpreted, therefore, the composition of the disability or educational environment category must be compared to the racial/ethnic composition of the state or districts total student enrollment, as discussed in the interpretation section above.
Caution must be used when using composition in states or districts that have extremely homogeneous racial/ethnic distributions. When a states or districts student enrollment is composed almost entirely of one racial/ethnic group, it can become impossible to demonstrate racial/ethnic disproportionality using composition. Thus, composition should not be used under these circumstances.
RISK
***FOR CHILD COUNT DATA ONLY***
(See Example #2 for how to calculate risk with educational environment data.)
Risk, when applied to a disability category, answers the question, What percentage of students from a specific racial/ethnic group receive special education and related services for a particular disability?
Example #1
Question: In State A, what percentage of Black students receive special education and related services for MR?
Find the number of Black students in the MR category. Using Table 1, State A has 3,110 Black students in the MR category.
Find the total number of enrolled Black students. Using Table 1, State A has 73,653 enrolled Black students.
Divide the number of Black students in the MR category by the number of enrolled Black students and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent:
Answer: In State A, 4.2% of Black students receive special education and related services for MR.
***FOR EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT DATA ONLY***
(Example #2 uses the data presented in Table 2.)
Risk, when applied to an educational environment category, answers the question, What percentage of students with disabilities from a specific racial/ethnic group receive special education and related services in a particular educational environment?
To answer this question, the risk denominator is students with disabilities rather than student enrollment. This denominator is used because only students with disabilities receive special education and related services in the educational environment categories.
Example #2
Question: In State A, what percentage of Hispanic students with disabilities receive special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day?
Find the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category. Using Table 2, State A has 1,092 Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category.
Find the number of Hispanic students with disabilities. Using Table 2, State A has 5,789 Hispanic students with disabilities.
Divide the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category by the number of Hispanic students with disabilities and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent:
Answer: In State A, 18.9% of Hispanic students with disabilities receive special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day.
Interpretation
To begin to address the question of whether a risk is disproportionate, compare the risk for a specific racial/ethnic group to the risk for a comparison group. The risk ratio, described in the following section, is the most appropriate method for comparing the relative size of two risks.
Strengths and Limitations
Risk is useful when discussing a racial/ethnic groups probability of receiving special education and related services either for a particular disability or in a particular educational environment. Unlike composition, risk does not vary with a state or districts underlying racial/ethnic distribution.
The risk for each racial/ethnic group, however, is directly related to overall special education identification rates. In other words, the size of a racial/ethnic groups risk for receiving special education and related services either for a particular disability or in a particular educational environment is directly related to the size of the overall risk for special education in the state or district.
Higher special education identification rates at the state or district level will produce larger risks for all racial/ethnic groups, whereas lower special education identification rates will produce smaller risks. For example, a state or district with a high MR identification rate will have larger MR risks for all of the racial/ethnic groups than a state or district with a relatively low MR identification rate. Likewise, a state or district with high special education identification rates will have larger educational environment risks for all of the racial/ethnic groups than a state or district with low special education identification rates.
Therefore, as described in the interpretation section above, the risk for each racial/ethnic group must be compared to the risk for a comparison group. Westat recommends that states compare the risk for each racial/ethnic group to the risk for all other students combined. The risk ratio, described in the next section, is the most appropriate method for comparing the relative size of two risks.
RISK RATIO
***FOR CHILD COUNT DATA ONLY***
(See Example #2 for how to calculate the risk ratio with educational environment data).
The risk ratio, when applied to a disability category, answers the question, What is a specific racial/ethnic groups risk of receiving special education and related services for a particular disability as compared to the risk for all other students?
Example #1
Question: In State A, what is the risk for Black students receiving special education and related services for MR as compared to the risk for all other students?
First, calculate the numerator of the risk ratio. In this example, the numerator is the MR risk for Black students:
Find the number of Black students in the MR category. Using Table 1, State A has 3,110 Black students in the MR category.
Find the total number of enrolled Black students. Using Table 1, State A has 73,653 enrolled Black students.
Calculate the risk by dividing the number of Black students in the MR category by the number of enrolled Black students and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the result):
Next, calculate the denominator of the risk ratio. In this example, the denominator is the MR risk for all other students:
4. Calculate the number of all other students in the MR category. In this example, all other students are all students who are not Black. Calculate this number by adding together all of the students in the MR category who are not Black. Using Table 1:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native students in MR category + Asian/Pacific Islander students in MR category + Hispanic students in MR category + White students in MR category
= 47 + 161+ 780 + 3,935
= 4,923.
5. Calculate the number of all other enrolled students. Calculate this number by adding together all of the enrolled students who are not Black. Using Table 1:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native enrolled students + Asian/Pacific Islander enrolled students + Hispanic enrolled students + White enrolled students
= 1,991 + 13,934 + 69,672 + 238,875
= 324,472.
6. Calculate the risk by dividing the number of all other students in the MR category by the number of all other enrolled students and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the result):
Calculate the risk ratio:
7. Divide the MR risk for Black students by the MR risk for all other students:
Answer: In State A, Black students are 2.78 times more likely than all other students to receive special education and related services for MR.
***FOR EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT DATA ONLY***
(Example #2 uses the data presented in Table 2.)
The risk ratio, when applied to the an educational environment category, answers the question, Given the risk for special education, what is a specific racial/ethnic groups risk for receiving special education and related services in a particular educational environment as compared to the risk for all other students?
Example #2
Question: In State A, what is the risk for Hispanic students with disabilities receiving special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day as compared to the risk for all other students with disabilities?
First, calculate the numerator of the risk ratio. In this example, the numerator is the >60% educational environment risk for Hispanic students:
Find the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category. Using Table 2, State A has 1,092 students in the >60% educational environment category.
Find the number of Hispanic students with disabilities. Using Table 2, State A has 5,789 Hispanic students with disabilities.
Calculate the risk by dividing the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category by the number of Hispanic students with disabilities and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the result):
Next, calculate the denominator of the risk ratio. In this example, the denominator is the >60% educational environment risk for all other students:
4. Calculate the number of all other students in the >60% educational environment category. In this example, all other students are students who are not Hispanic. Calculate this number by adding together all of the students in the >60% educational environment category who are not Hispanic. Using Table 2:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native students in >60% category + Asian/Pacific Islander students in >60% category + Black students in >60% category + White students in >60% category
= 31 + 168 + 1,443 + 2,365
= 4,007.
5. Calculate the number of all other students with disabilities. Calculate this number by adding together all of the students with disabilities who are not Hispanic. Using Table 2:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native students with disabilities + Asian/Pacific Islander students with disabilities + Black students with disabilities + White students with disabilities
= 190 + 1,308 + 10,052 + 20,886
= 32,436.
6. Calculate the risk by dividing the number of all other students in the >60% educational environment category by the number of all other students with disabilities and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the result):
Calculate the risk ratio:
7. Divide the >60% educational environment risk for Hispanic students by the >60% educational environment risk for all other students:
Answer: In State A, Hispanic students with disabilities are 1.53 times more likely than all other students with disabilities to receive special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day.
Interpretation
The risk ratio compares the relative size of two risks by dividing the risk for a specific racial/ethnic group by the risk for a comparison group. A risk ratio of 1.00 indicates no difference between the racial/ethnic group and the comparison group. In other words, the racial/ethnic group is no more likely than students from all other racial/ethnic groups to receive special education and related services either for a particular disability or in a particular educational environment. A risk ratio greater than 1.00 indicates the risk for the racial/ethnic group is greater than the risk for the comparison group, while a risk ratio less than 1.00 indicates the risk for the racial/ethnic group is less than the risk for the comparison group.
Strengths and Limitations
Unlike composition, the size of the risk ratio for a particular racial/ethnic group does not depend on that racial/ethnic groups percentage of the state or districts enrollment. Furthermore, unlike risk, the size of a racial/ethnic groups risk ratio does not depend on differences in overall special education identification rates because the risks for the racial/ethnic group and for the comparison group both come from the same state or district. We feel, therefore, that the risk ratio is the best single measure of disproportionality.
Two issues must be addressed, however, when applying risk ratios to districtlevel data. First, risk ratios cannot be compared across districts because the size of the risk ratio is affected by the districtlevel racial/ethnic demographics of the comparison group. The risk for the comparison group is jointly influenced by the racial/ethnic composition of the comparison group and the risk for each of those racial/ethnic groups. Thus, the risk for a racial/ethnic group may be the same in two districts, but the risk ratios will differ unless the racial/ethnic demographics of the districts are identical. The weighted risk ratio, discussed in the next section, addresses this issue.
Second, having small numbers of students at the district level can be problematic when interpreting or calculating risk ratios. Risk ratios are difficult to interpret when based on small numbers of students in either the racial/ethnic group or the comparison group. Furthermore, risk ratios cannot be calculated when there are no students in the comparison group receiving special education and related services. The alternate risk ratio, discussed in the next section, describes how to calculate risk ratios in districts with small numbers of students.
APPLICATION OF RISK RATIOS TO DISTRICTLEVEL DATA
Weighted Risk Ratios: Comparing Risk Ratios Across Districts
As discussed in the risk ratio strengths and limitations section, risk ratios are not comparable across districts. The denominator of the risk ratio (i.e., the risk for all other students) is influenced by the racial/ethnic composition of the comparison group. Each racial/ethnic group contributes to the risk for the comparison group in proportion to its size relative to the entire comparison group. Therefore, a racial/ethnic group may have the same risk in two districts, but substantially different risk ratios because of variability in the districtlevel racial/ethnic demographic distributions.
The weighted risk ratio addresses this limitation by adjusting for district variability in the racial/ethnic composition of the comparison group. The weighted risk ratio thus allows comparison of risk ratios across districts and enables states to rank districts when deciding how to target technical assistance.
The weighted risk ratio uses the districtlevel risk for the racial/ethnic group for the numerator and a weighted risk for all other students for the denominator. The weighted risk for all other students uses the districtlevel risks for each racial/ethnic group in the comparison group, weighted according to the racial/ethnic composition of the state.
***FOR CHILD COUNT DATA ONLY***
(See Example #2 for how to calculate the weighted risk ratio with educational environment data.)
Example #1
Question: In District 5, what is the risk for Black students receiving special education and related services for MR as compared to the risk for all other students when the risk ratio is weighted according to the racial/ethnic demographics of State A?
First, calculate the MR risk for each racial/ethnic group using the data for District 5 in Table 1. Do not convert the results to percents by multiplying by 100 and do not round the results.
1. Calculate the MR risk for Black students in District 5:
2. Calculate the MR risk for American Indian/Alaska Native students in District 5:
3. Calculate the MR risk for Asian/Pacific Islander students in District 5:
4. Calculate the MR risk for Hispanic students in District 5:
5. Calculate the MR risk for White students in District 5:
Next, calculate the racial/ethnic composition of the total student enrollment of State A using the data in Table 1. Do not convert the results to percents by multiplying by 100 and do not round the results.
6. Calculate the proportion of students enrolled in State A who are Black:
7. Calculate the proportion of students enrolled in State A who are American Indian/Alaska Native:
8. Calculate the proportion of students enrolled in State A who are Asian/Pacific Islander:
9. Calculate the proportion of students enrolled in State A who are Hispanic:
10. Calculate the proportion of students enrolled in State A who are White:
Calculate the weighted risk ratio:
Answer: In District 5, Black students are 2.46 times more likely than all other students to receive special education and related services for MR when the risk ratio is weighted according to the racial/ethnic demographics of State A.
***FOR EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT DATA ONLY***
(Example #2 uses the data presented in Table 2.)
The general equation for the weighted risk ratio remains the same when using educational environment data, but risk and composition are calculated using total child count data instead of student enrollment data.
Example #2
Question: In District 8, what is the risk for Hispanic students with disabilities receiving special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day as compared to the risk for all other students with disabilities when the risk ratio is weighted according to the racial/ethnic demographics of State A?
First, calculate the >60% educational environment risk for each racial/ethnic group using the data for District 8 in Table 2. Do not convert the results to percents by multiplying by 100 and do not round the results.
1. Calculate the >60% educational environment risk for Hispanic students in District 8:
2. Calculate the >60% educational environment risk for American Indian/Alaska Native students in District 8:
3. Calculate the >60% educational environment risk for Asian/Pacific Islander students in District 8:
4. Calculate the >60% educational environment risk for Black students in District 8:
5. Calculate the >60% educational environment risk for White students in District 8:
Next, calculate the racial/ethnic composition of the total child count of State A using the data in Table 2. Do not convert the results to percents by multiplying by 100 and do not round the results.
6. Calculate the proportion of students with disabilities in State A who are Hispanic:
7. Calculate the proportion of students with disabilities in State A who are American Indian/Alaska Native
8. Calculate the proportion of students with disabilities in State A who are Asian/Pacific Islander:
9. Calculate the proportion of students with disabilities in State A who are Black:
10. Calculate the proportion of students with disabilities in State A who are White:
Calculate the weighted risk ratio:
Answer: In District 8, Hispanic students with disabilities are 1.13 times more likely than all other students with disabilities to receive special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day when the risk ratio is weighted according to the racial/ethnic demographics of State A.
Alternate Risk Ratios: Calculating Risk Ratios with Small Numbers of Students
Risk ratios are difficult to interpret when they are based on small numbers of students (either in the racial/ethnic group or the comparison group). When risk ratios are based on small numbers, minor variations in the number of students in either the racial/ethnic group or the comparison group can produce dramatic changes in the size of the risk ratio. Furthermore, it is impossible to calculate risk ratios if there are no students in the comparison group (i.e., the risk for the comparison group cannot be calculated) or if none of the students in the comparison group receives special education and related services either for the disability or in the educational environment (i.e., the risk for the comparison group is zero).
For these reasons, we suggest the following when calculating risk ratios at the district level:
Do not calculate a risk ratio if there are fewer than 10 students in the racial/ethnic group of interest enrolled in the district (when examining child count data) or in the total district child count (when examining educational environment data).
Calculate an alternate risk ratio (see equation below) if there are at least 10 students in the racial/ethnic group, but there are fewer than 10 students in the comparison group enrolled in the district (when examining child count data) or in the total district child count (when examining educational environment data), or if there are no students in the comparison group receiving special education and related services for the disability or in the educational environment (the risk for the comparison group is zero).
Because the alternate risk ratio uses statelevel data to calculate the risk for the comparison group, do not calculate the alternate risk ratio if there are fewer than 10 students in the comparison group enrolled in the state (when examining child count data) or in the total state child count (when examining educational environment data), or if there are no students in the comparison group receiving special education and related services for the disability or in the educational environment at the state level.
When calculating the alternate risk ratio, use the districtlevel risk for the racial/ethnic group in the numerator and the statelevel risk for the comparison group in the numerator.
If you cannot calculate either a regular (weighted) risk ratio or an alternate risk ratio for a specific racial/ethnic group within a district, you should examine the number of students in that racial/ethnic group who are receiving special education and related services either for the disability or in the educational environment.
Although the number of students may be small, if you determine that a large proportion of them are receiving special education and related services either for the disability or in the educational environment, you should examine existing policies, procedures, and practices to ensure that they comply with the requirements stated in Part B of the IDEA .
Examples #3 and #4 demonstrate how to calculate the alternate risk ratio with child count data and educational environment data, respectively.
***FOR CHILD COUNT DATA ONLY***
(See Example #3 for how to calculate the weighted risk ratio with educational environment data.)
Example #3
Question: What is the risk for Black students receiving special education and related services for MR in District 3 as compared to the risk for all other students in State A?
In this example, District 3 has no students in the comparison group who receive special education and related services for MR. Therefore, calculate an alternative risk ratio.
First, using the data for District 3, calculate the numerator of the risk ratio. In this example, the numerator is the districtlevel MR risk for Black students:
1. Find the number of Black students in the MR category in District 3. Using Table 1, District 3 has 189 Black students in the MR category.
2. Find the total number of Black students enrolled in District 3. Using Table 1, District 3 has 4,697 enrolled Black students.
3. Calculate the risk by dividing the number of Black students in the MR category by the total number of Black students and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the results):
Next, using the data for State A, calculate the denominator of the risk ratio. In this example, because District 3 has no students in the MR category who are not Black, the denominator is the statelevel MR risk for all other students:
4. Calculate the number of all other students in the MR category in State A. In this example, all other students are all students who are not Black. Calculate this number by adding together all of the students in the MR category in State A who are not Black. Using Table 1:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native students in MR category + Asian/Pacific Islander students in MR category + Hispanic students in MR category + White students in MR category
= 47 + 161 + 780 + 3,935
= 4,923.
5. Calculate the number of all other enrolled students in State A. Calculate this number by adding together all of the enrolled students in State A who are not Black. Using Table 1:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native enrolled students + Asian/Pacific Islander enrolled students + Hispanic enrolled students + White enrolled students
= 1,991 + 13,934 + 69,672 + 238,875
= 324,472.
6. Calculate the risk by dividing the number of all other students in the MR category by the total number of all other students and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the results):
Calculate the alternate risk ratio:
7. Divide the districtlevel MR risk for Black students by the statelevel MR risk for all other students:
Answer: In District 3, Black students are 2.65 times more likely than all other students in State A to receive special education and related services for MR.
***FOR EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT DATA ONLY***
(Example #4 uses the data presented in Table 2.)
The general equation for the alternate risk ratio remains the same when using educational environment data, but the risk for the racial/ethnic group and the risk for the comparison group are calculated using total child count data in the risk denominator instead of student enrollment data.
Example #4
Question: What is the risk for Hispanic students with disabilities receiving special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day in District 10 as compared to the risk for all other students with disabilities in State A?
In this example, District 10 has fewer than 10 students with disabilities in the comparison group. Therefore, calculate an alternative risk ratio.
First, using the data for District 10, calculate the numerator of the risk ratio. In this example, the numerator is the districtlevel >60% educational environment risk for Hispanic students:
1. Find the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category in District 10. Using Table 2, District 10 has 229 Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category.
2. Find the total number of Hispanic students with disabilities in District 10. Using Table 2, District 10 has 742 Hispanic students with disabilities.
3. Calculate the risk by dividing the number of Hispanic students in the >60% educational environment category by the total number of Hispanic students with disabilities and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the results):
Next, using the data for State A, calculate the denominator of the risk ratio. In this example, because District 10 has fewer than 10 students with disabilities who are not Hispanic, the denominator is the statelevel >60% educational environment risk for all other students:
4. Calculate the number of all other students in the >60% educational environment category in State A. In this example, all other students are all students who are not Hispanic. Calculate this number by adding together all of the students in the >60% educational environment category in State A who are not Hispanic. Using Table 2:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native students in >60% category + Asian/Pacific Islander students in >60% category + Black students in >60% category + White students in >60% category
= 31 + 168 + 1,443 + 2,365
= 4,007.
5. Calculate the number of all other students with disabilities in State A. Calculate this number by adding together all of the students with disabilities in State A who are not Hispanic. Using Table 2:
All other students = American Indian/Alaska Native students with disabilities + Asian/Pacific Islander students with disabilities + Black students with disabilities + White students with disabilities
= 190 + 1,308 + 10,052 + 20,886
= 32,436.
6. Calculate the risk by dividing the number of all other students in the >60% educational environment category by the total number of all other students with disabilities and then multiply by 100 to convert the result to a percent (do not round the results):
Calculate the alternate risk ratio:
7. Divide the districtlevel >60% educational environment risk for Hispanic students by the statelevel >60% educational environment risk for all other students:
Answer: In District 10, Hispanic students with disabilities are 2.50 times more likely than all other students in State A to receive special education and related services outside the regular classroom >60% of the school day.
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS ABOUT ASSESSING DISPROPORTIONALITY
This technical assistance guide has focused on calculating composition, risk, and the risk ratio, along with how to interpret these methods and the strengths and limitations of each. In this section, we conclude with brief discussions of both IDEA requirements and disproportionality targets.
According to Part B of the IDEA, states are required to collect and examine data to determine if significant disproportionality based on race is occurring with respect to the identification of children with disabilities and the placement of these children in particular educational settings. If a state determines that significant disproportionality exists, then the state must provide for a review and, if appropriate, revision of the policies, procedures, and practices used in the identification or placement to ensure that the policies, procedures, and practices comply with the requirements stated in Part B of the IDEA (20 USC 1418 (c) and 34 CFR 300.755).
When assessing racial/ethnic disproportionality, states should determine criteria for defining significant disproportionality and apply these criteria to all analyses. States should flag any significant disproportionality identified by the criteria for review, and as appropriate, revise policies, procedures, and practices. States should assess disproportionality at the both the state and district levels; disproportionality may be widespread at the district level even when there is no significant disproportionality at the state level.
When addressing significant disproportionality, states should not set targets that include numerical goals based on race/ethnicity. For example, states should not set targets stating that they will reduce risk ratios to a certain value. Nor should they set targets stating they will reduce disproportionality so the racial/ethnic composition of the disability or educational environment category is more similar to the racial/ethnic composition of the total student enrollment. Targets that include numerical goals based on race/ethnicity raise serious concerns under federal civil rights laws and the United States Constitution.
Instead of setting targets that include numerical goals based on race/ethnicity, states should set targets that focus on what will be done if significant disproportionality is identified. For example, a state could set a target stating, The state will provide technical assistance when noncompliant policies, procedures, and practices are identified. Any noncompliant policies, procedures, and practices will be corrected as soon as possible, but in no case later than one year of identification. Or, the state could set a target stating, The state will examine the policies, procedures, and practices in the 10 or 15 districts where disproportionality is most serious to ensure that these districts are complying with the requirements stated in Part B of the IDEA. Targets such as these do not raise concerns about civil rights violations.
RECOMMENDED REFERENCES
Artiles, A. J., Harry, B., Reschly, D. J., & Chinn, P. C. (2002). Overidentification of students of color in special education: A critical overview. Multicultural Perspectives, 4, 310.
Chinn, P. C., & Hughes, S. (1987). Representation of minority students in special education classes. Remedial and Special Education, 8, 4146.
Coutinho, M. J., & Oswald, D. P. (2000). Disproportionate representation in special education: A synthesis and recommendations. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 135156.
Donovan, M. S., & Cross, C. T. (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Heller, K. A., Holtzman, W. H., & Messick, S. (1982). Placing children in special education: A strategy for equity. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Hosp, J. L., & Reschly, D. J. (2002). Predictors of restrictiveness of placement for AfricanAmerican students and Caucasian students. Exceptional Children, 68, 225228.
Losen, D. J., & Orfield, G. (2002). Racial inequity in special education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
MacMillan, D. L., & Reschly, D. J. (1998). Overrepresentation of minority students: The case for greater specificity or reconsideration of the variables examined. The Journal of Special Education, 32, 1524.
Skiba, R. J., Chung, C. G., Wu, T. C., Simmons, A. B., & St John, E. P. (2000). Minority overrepresentation in Indianas Special Education programs. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Education Policy Center.
APPENDIX
TASK FORCE ON RACIAL/ETHNIC DISPROPORTIONALITY
Although the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) set forth provisions requiring states to address significant disproportionality, these provisions do not provide a definition of disproportionality or specify how states should assess it. The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) therefore recognized a need for a disproportionality method that could be used in the Part B Annual Performance Report (APR), for data requests, and for technical assistance provided to the states by the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt).
Since many approaches for assessing racial/ethnic disproportionality exist, Westat convened a task force in January 2003 to discuss methodologies for calculating disproportionality. In March 2004, Westat reconvened the task force to continue discussing issues related to assessing racial/ethnic disproportionality.
On both occasions, the task force consisted of state special education data managers, state and local directors of special education, university researchers, and representatives from advocacy groups, the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE), NCCRESt, the National Center for Special Education Accountability Monitoring (NCSEAM), the Regional Resource Centers, OSEP, the Department of Education Office of the General Counsel, and Westat. Some of the issues the task force has discussed include:
Methodologies for assessing disproportionality and how to calculate each;
The strengths and limitations of these methodologies;
The appropriate denominator to use with these disproportionality methods (i.e., total school enrollment or population data);
The appropriate comparison group to use with the risk ratio (i.e., all other students, White students, all students, etc.);
The weighted risk ratio;
Criteria for defining disproportionality at the state and district levels; and
Disproportionality in the educational environments, including how to assess it and which educational environment categories should be examined.
Westat reviews and considers all task force discussions on racial/ethnic disproportionality and then uses this information to make recommendations to OSEP. OSEP then assesses our recommendations and makes decisions regarding how to evaluate disproportionality for the APR, data requests, and the technical assistance provided to states by NCCRESt.
An OSEP/Westat disproportionality task force recommended that, when calculating disproportionality, states use enrollment data rather than population data because these data are available at the school and district level. Population data, on the other hand, are not readily available for school districts. Because OSEP recommends that states examine disproportionality at the district level, states should use a denominator that is comparable for all levels of analysis. See the Appendix for more information about the disproportionality task force.
The data used in this table (and the one below State ATotal Student Enrollment) are fictitious and not from an actual state. They are meant to guide the discussion of disproportionality methods in the examples that follow. Furthermore, we only present data from one disability category. States should assess disproportionality in the other disability categories and in the educational environment categories.
The data used in this table (and the one below State ATotal Child CountAll Disabilities)are fictitious and not from an actual state. They are meant to guide the discussion of disproportionality methods in the examples that follow. Furthermore, we only present data from one educational environment category. States should assess disproportionality in the other educational environment categories and in the disability categories.
Using all other students as the comparison group enables risk ratios to be calculated for all racial/ethnic groups and allows the risk ratios to be calculated in the same manner for all racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, risk ratios can be calculated in states or districts with diverse racial/ethnic distributions, including those with homogeneous distributions and those without a clear racial/ethnic majority.
Resources for Trainers / Theme B: IDEA and General Education Resources B page PAGE 1
Risk = Number of Black students in MR category / Number of enrolled Black students
= 316 / 6,224
= 0.050771.
Risk = Number of Asian/Pacific Islander students in MR category / Number of enrolled Asian/Pacific Islander students
= 18 / 1,213
= 0.014839.
The equation for the weighted risk ratio is:
Weighted risk ratio = R i
_____________
w j R j
j `" i
= (1  pi )Ri
_____________
p j R j
j `" i
Where Ri is the districtlevel risk for racial/ethnic group i, and pi is the statelevel proportion of students from racial/ethnic group i. Rj is the districtlevel risk for the jth racial/ethnic group, and pj is the statelevel proportion of students from the jth racial/ethnic group.
Risk ratio = >60% educational environment risk for Hispanic students / >60% educational environment risk for all other students
= 18.863362% / 12.353558%
= 1.53.
Risk = (All other students in >60% category / All other students with disabilities) * 100
= (4,007 / 32,436) * 100
= 12.353558%.
Risk = (Hispanic students in >60% category / All Hispanic students with disabilities) * 100
= (1,092 / 5,789) * 100
= 18.863362%.
The equation for the risk ratio is:
Risk ratio = Risk for racial/ethnic group for educational environment category / Risk for comparison group for educational environment category
Risk ratio = (MR risk for Black students / MR risk for all other students)
= 4.222503% / 1.517234%
= 2.78.
Risk = (All other students in MR category / All other students) * 100
= (4,923 / 324,472) * 100
= 1.517234%.
Risk = (Black students in MR category / All Black students) * 100
= (3,110 / 73,653) * 100
= 4.222503%.
The equation for the risk ratio is:
Risk ratio = Risk for racial/ethnic group for disability category / Risk for comparison group for disability category
Risk = (Hispanic students in >60% category / All Hispanic students with disabilities) * 100
= (1,092 / 5,789) * 100
= 18.9%.
The equation for risk is:
Risk = (Number of students from racial/ethnic group in educational environment category / Number of students with disabilities from racial/ethnic group) * 100
Risk = (Black students in MR category / All Black students) * 100
= (3,110 / 73,653) * 100
= 4.2%.
The equation for risk is:
Risk = (Number of students from racial/ethnic group in disability category / Number of enrolled students from racial/ethnic group) * 100
Relative difference = [(Environment composition Enrollment composition) / Enrollment composition] * 100
= [(21.415964% 17.500031%) / 17.500031%] * 100
= 22.4%.
Enrollment composition = (Enrolled Hispanic students / All enrolled students) * 100
= (69,672 / 398,125) * 100
= 17.5%.
Relative difference = [(Disability composition Enrollment composition) / Enrollment composition] *100
= [(38.712599% 18.499969%) / 18.499969%] * 100
= 109.3%.
Enrollment composition = (Enrolled Black students / All enrolled students) * 100
= (73,653 / 398,125) * 100
= 18.5%.
Composition = (Hispanic students in >60% category / All students in >60% category) * 100
= (1,092 / 5,099) * 100
= 21.4%.
Composition = (Black students in MR category / All students in MR category) * 100
= (3,110 / 8,033) * 100
= 38.7%.
The equation for composition is:
Composition = (Number of students from racial/ethnic group in disability or educational environment category / Number of students in disability or educational environment category) * 100
Risk = Number of American Indian/Alaska Native students in MR category / Number of enrolled American Indian/Alaska Native students
= 11 / 311
= 0.035370.
Risk = Number of Hispanic students in MR category / Number of enrolled Hispanic students
= 121 / 6,002
= 0.020160.
Risk = Number of White students in MR category / Number of enrolled White students
= 732 / 34,897
= 0.020976.
Composition = Enrolled Black students / All enrolled students
= 73,653 / 398,125
= 0.185000.
Composition = Enrolled American Indian/Alaska Native students / All enrolled students
= 1,991 / 398,125
= 0.005001.
Composition = Enrolled Asian/Pacific Islander students / All enrolled students
= 13,934 / 398,125
= 0.034999.
Composition = Enrolled Hispanic students / All enrolled students
= 69,672 / 398,125
= 0.175000.
Composition = Enrolled White students / All enrolled students
= 238,875 / 398,125
= 0.600000.
Weighted risk ratio = [(1 State Black composition) * District Black MR risk] / [(State American Indian/Alaska Native composition * District American Indian/Alaska Native MR risk) + (State Asian/Pacific Islander composition * District Asian/Pacific Islander MR risk) + (State Hispanic composition * District Hispanic MR risk) + (State White composition * District White MR risk)]
= [(1 0.185001) * 0.050771] / [(0.005000 * 0.035370) + (0.034999 * 0.014839) + (0.175000 * 0.020160) + (0.600000 * 0.020976)]
= 2.46.
Risk = Number of Hispanic students in >60% category / Number of Hispanic students with disabilities
= 98 / 778
= 0.125964.
Risk = Number of American Indian/Alaska Native students in >60% category / Number of American Indian/Alaska Native students with disabilities
= 0 / 17
= 0.0.
Risk = Number of Asian/Pacific Islander students in >60% category / Number of Asian/Pacific Islander students with disabilities
= 18 / 156
= 0.115385.
Risk = Number of White students in >60% category / Number of White students with disabilities
= 257 / 2,520
= 0.101984.
Risk = Number of Black students in >60% category / Number of Black students with disabilities
= 101 / 752
= 0.134309.
Composition = Hispanic students with disabilities / All students with disabilities
= 5,789 / 38,225
= 0.151445.
Composition = American Indian/Alaska Native students with disabilities / All students with disabilities
= 190 / 38,225
= 0.004971.
Composition = Asian/Pacific Islander students with disabilities / All students with disabilities
= 1,308 / 38,225
= 0.034218.
Composition = Black students with disabilities / All students with disabilities
= 10,052 / 38,225
= 0.262970.
Composition = White students with disabilities / All students with disabilities
= 20,886 / 38,225
= 0.546396.
Weighted risk ratio = [(1 State Hispanic composition) * District Hispanic >60% risk] / [(State American Indian/Alaska Native composition * District American Indian/Alaska Native >60% risk) + (State Asian/Pacific Islander composition * District Asian/Pacific Islander >60% risk) + (State Black composition * District Black >60% risk) + (State White composition * District White >60% risk)]
= [(1 0.151445) * 0.125964] / [(0.004971 * 0.0) + (0.034218 * 0.115385) + (0.262970 * 0.134309) + (0.546396 * 0.101984)]
= 1.13.
The equation for the alternate risk ratio is:
Alternate risk ratio = Districtlevel risk for racial/ethnic group for disability or educational environment category / Statelevel risk for comparison group for disability or educational environment category
Risk = (Black students in MR category / All Black students) * 100
= (189 / 4,697) * 100
= 4.023845%.
Risk = (All other students in MR category / All other students) * 100
= (4,923 / 324,472) * 100
= 1.517234%.
Alternate risk ratio = Districtlevel MR risk for Black students / Statelevel MR risk for all other students
= 4.023845% / 1.517234%
= 2.65.
Risk = (Hispanic students in >60% category / All Hispanic students with disabilities) * 100
= (229 / 742) * 100
= 30.862534%.
Risk = (All other students in >60% category / All other students with disabilities) * 100
= (4,007 / 32,436) * 100
= 12.353558%.
Alternate risk ratio = Districtlevel >60% educational env @A\ce
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