Current as of 2018
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Another component of the IEP that IDEA requires is specifying how the child’s progress will be measured. This statement flows naturally out of the annual goals written for the child, which must be measurable. Measuring the progress that a child is making toward his or her stated annual goals is an essential part of the special educational process, because it gives the IEP team concrete evidence as to whether the individualized program as designed by that team is actually effective or whether adjustments to services or instruction need to be made. And, of course, it’s equally essential to report back to the child’s parents, so they are informed about their child’s learning.
- IDEA’s exact words
- Prompting questions to guide the discussion
- Reporting to parents on the child’s progress
IDEA’s Exact Words
IDEA states that each child’s IEP must contain:
(3) A description of—
(i) How the child’s progress toward meeting the annual goals described in paragraph (2) of this section will be measured; and
(ii) When periodic reports on the progress the child is making toward meeting the annual goals (such as through the use of quarterly or other periodic reports, concurrent with the issuance of report cards) will be provided…[§300.320(a)(3)]
Prompting Questions to Help Guide the Discussion
IEP teams may find it easier to address this component of the IEP by framing the discussion around specific questions. For example, the IEP team might ask itself these three questions:
- How will the child’s progress be measured?
- When will the child’s progress be measured?
- How well will the child need to perform in order to achieve his or her stated IEP goals (and, for some children, benchmarks or objectives)?
The information on how well a child must perform and how his or her progress will be measured is often called evaluation criteria. Well-written evaluation criteria are stated in objective, measurable terms. (You’ll note the tie-in with the requirement that the annual goals written for a child must be measurable.) For example, a child might be required to perform a task “with 90% accuracy” or get 18 out of 20 words correct in each of 5 trials. These are concrete numbers or scores, establishing what the IEP team considers an acceptable level of performance or progress for the child.
In other instances, progress may not be measured in number scores, such as statements like this:
By June 15, Vicky will complete the obstacle course unassisted, as documented by the adapted physical education teacher.
In this example, the teacher will observe and take notes while Vicky completes the obstacle course. Teacher observation/notes are one way of checking progress. Other ways of checking progress may include:
- reviewing class work and homework assignments;
- giving quizzes, tests, or teacher-made assessments; and
- giving informal and/or formal assessments (the QRI or Woodcock-Johnson, for example).
Reporting to Parents on the Child’s Progress
IDEA’s exact words above also refer to the periodic reporting of each child’s progress, which gives parents, other members of the IEP team, and the public agency the opportunity to review the IEP and make adjustments if they are warranted. When a child does not make the progress expected, then it’s essential to determine why and take corrective action.
The 2004 Amendments to IDEA are not especially prescriptive about the timing of such progress reports. This is because the statute itself does not require report cards or quarterly report cards. When IDEA mentions them in §300.320(a)(ii) (see above), they “are used as examples…of when periodic reports on the child’s progress toward meeting the annual goals might be provided” (71 Fed. Reg. at 46664, emphasis added). As the Department of Education clarifies:
The specific times that progress reports are provided to parents and the specific manner and format in which a child’s progress toward meeting the annual goals is reported is best left to State and local officials to determine. (Id.)
In OSEP’s letter to Pugh on January 18, 2017, the Department reiterated this position, adding, “Thus, State educational agencies and their local educational agencies have discretion to determine the specific content of the periodic progress reports provided to parents of children with disabilities, and in reporting progress on annual goals.”
Would you like to read about another component of the IEP?
If so, use the links below to jump there quickly.
How is the child currently doing in school? How does the disability affect his or her performance in class? This type of information is captured in the “present levels” statement in the IEP.
Once a child’s needs are identified, the IEP team works to develop appropriate goals to address those needs. Annual goal describe what the child is expected to do or learn within a 12-month period.
Benchmarks or Short-Term Objectives
Benchmarks or short-term objectives are required only for children with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards. If you’re wondering what that means, this article will tell you!
Measuring and Reporting Progress (you’re already here!)
Each child’s IEP must also contain a description of how his or her progress toward meeting the annual goals will be measured and when it will be reported to parents. Learn more about how to write this statement in this short article.
The IEP must contain a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services to be provided to the child, or on behalf of the child. This article focuses on the first element: a statement of the special education that will be provided for the child.
To help a child with a disability benefit from special education, he or she may also need extra help in one area or another, such as speaking or moving. This additional help is called related services. Find out all about these critical services here.
Supplementary Aids and Services
Supplementary aids and services are intended to improve children’s access to learning and their participation across the spectrum of academic, extracurricular, and nonacademic activities and settings. The IEP team must determine what supplementary aids and services a child will need and specify them in the IEP.
Program Modifications for School Personnel
Also part of the IEP is identifying the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided. Read more here.
Extent of Nonparticipation
The IEP must also include an explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and in other school settings and activities. Read how this connects to IDEA’s foundational principle of LRE.
Accommodations in Assessment
IDEA requires that students with disabilities take part in state or districtwide assessments. The IEP team must decide if the student needs accommodations in testing or another type of assessment entirely. In this component of the IEP, the team documents how the student will participate.
When will the child begin to receive services? Where? How often? How long will a “session” last? Pesky details, but important to include in the IEP!
Beginning no later than a student’s 16th birthday (and younger, if appropriate), the IEP must contain transition-related plans designed to help the student prepare for life after secondary school.
Age of Majority
Beginning at least one year before the student reaches the age of majority, the IEP must include a statement that the student has been told about the rights (if any) that will transfer to him or her at age of majority. What is “age of majority” and what does this statement in the IEP look like?